Century-scale effects of invasive deer and rodents on the dynamics of forests growing on soils of contrasting fertility

We constructed individual-based spatially explicit simulation models of two mixed conifer–angiosperm forests, growing on soils of contrasting phosphorus(P) availability, to investigate how browsing by invasive red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus) and granivory by invasive rodents might alter forest dynamics.

Forsyth et al.